Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Biology 206 U4IP Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Biology 206 U4IP - Research Paper Example Components of Cigarettes that Affect the Respiratory System: The toxic components in tobacco include substances and gases that affect the respiratory system and lead to cancer. These include components such as benzene, vinyl chloride, ethylene oxide, aromatic amines, arsenic, nickel, chromium, cadmium, and radioactive elements, and gases such as acetone, ammonia, acrolein, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, hydrogen, methane, phenol, formaldehyde, and benzene. The gas phase of smoking directly affects the respiratory tract of the body. The other constituents together cause damage to the respiratory tract with loss of cylia. Hypertrophy in the mucus gland occurs. The peripheral airways, the bronchioles also suffer and cells of the bronchial tree suffer from inflammation as a result of these constituents. The cardiovascular system, the gastric system, the cataracts are other parts of the body that are affected by smoking and its constituents. COPD or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is th e other form of disease caused by smoking affecting the functioning of the lungs (Robinson and Scullion, 2008, pp.544-546). Increased Carbon Dioxide Levels in Blood Through Smoking: The amount of carbon dioxide in the human blood is balanced by the presence of receptor sites in the blood. However, such balance is disturbed with toxic substances being intruded in the flow of blood, and the levels of carbon dioxide can change as a result of such toxins (Francis, 2011, p.85). Increase in the levels of carbon dioxide in the blood mainly occurs when enough carbon dioxide is not exhaled out of the body. This occurs when the lungs and the respiratory system do not function properly. Thus, chronic and obstructive lung diseases that are caused by the smoking lead to increase in the levels of carbon dioxide in blood. Lung cancer causes obstruction of the lungs resulting from uncontrolled development of malignant cells, thus leading to higher levels of carbon dioxide (Cargill, 2011). Effect of Smoking on Other Organs of the Body: Smoking not only affects the lungs and the respiratory system, but it affects almost all the organs of human body, that include the heart, the blood vessels, eyes, mouth, reproductive organs, bones, bladder, and digestive systems. Blood cells in all these organs are affected by the chemicals and toxic substances present in tobacco, thereby damaging the functions of these organs. Besides the lungs, the negative effects of smoking have been mostly obtained in heart and the blood vessels, leading to severe heart diseases of humans (How Does Smoking Affect the Heart and Blood Vessels? 2011). Correlation of Cellular Respiration with Respiratory System: Physiological respiration or the respiratory system involves the process through which gases are exchanges by human beings and animals with their surroundings. This involves the process on oxygen intake in the body and exhalation of carbon dioxide from the body. The correlation of the respiratory syste m with cellular respiration is that cellular respiration involves the reactions that produce ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate), with the reactions occurring in the mitochondria. It is termed as cellular respiration as use of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide is done for these oxidative reactions (Russell, 2008, p.998). Effects of Smokeless Tobacco: Although many tobacco

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